The Invited Review Article “Diatom biosilica in plasmonics: applications in sensing, diagnostics and therapeutics” by Edoardo De Tommasi (CNR-ISASI) and Anna Chiara De Luca (CNR-IEOS) has been among the top 10 downloads of Biomedical Optics Express in May 2022! Several living organisms are able to synthesize complex nanostructures provided with peculiar physical and chemical properties by means of finely-tuned, genetically controlled biomineralization processes. Frustules, in particular, are micro- and nano-structured silica shells produced by ubiquitous diatom microalgae, whose optical properties have been recently exploited in photonics, solar energy harvesting, and biosensing. Metallization of diatom biosilica, both in the shape of intact frustules or diatomite particles, can trigger plasmonic effects that in turn can find application in high-sensitive detection platforms, allowing to obtain effective nanosensors at low cost and on a large scale. The aim of the present review article is to provide a wide, complete overview on the main metallization techniques applied to diatom biosilica and on the principal applications of diatom-based plasmonic devices mainly but not exclusively in the fields of biochemical sensing, diagnostics and therapeutics.